Location, Area and Topography of the Province
Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province with an area of 16421 square kilometers in the southwest and in the mountainous strip of western Iran and covers about one percent of Iran's land area.
Neighbors of the province
• From the north and east: Isfahan province
• From south and south east: Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad provinces
• From the west and southwest: Khuzestan province
• From North West: Lorestan Province
This province is located in the Zagros Chariot Dynasty.
Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province that known as the “roof of Iran” with an average elevation of 2153 meters, in terms of topography is a mountainous hill territory with mountain ranges separated by heights.
- Heights and hills: About 85 percent of the province's area
- Plains and wetlands: about 15 percent of the province's area
- above 4000 meters peaks of Provinces: Zardkouh and Shah Shahidan
- 3500-4000 meters peaks of Provinces: Sidnikuh, Ilibeghi, Saldaran, Clar, Sabzkouh and ...
- The province has 19 peaks with altitudes above 3500 meters.
- The highest point of the province: Zardkuh with 4221 meters in the northwest of the province
- Lowest point of the province: Karoun River exit at a height of about 800 meters in the southwest of the province
- Total cultivated plains of the province: 3500 sq. Km
- The second precipitation hotspot of the country is located in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province.
- Although Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province is small in size, has a variety of climate, so that in the semi-easterly has semi-arid climate, in some regions of the west and southwest has Warm and semi-humid climate, and in the northwest has cold and temperate weather.
- Precipitation situation: rainfall in the province continues from early November to the end of April and the winter season is the most rainfall season in the province.
- Temperature situation: There are extreme temperature fluctuations and a large difference between absolute minima and absolute maxima, especially in the northwest and east of the province. So that in some years this temperature difference reaches more than 70 ° C.
- Wind situation: Among the climatic elements, the wind is almost constant, and does not have severe annual changes.
The province consists of aquifers including Zayandehrood, Dez and Karoon aquifers.
The climate and topography of the province have caused about 10% of the surface water resources of the country to flow.
Due to topographic conditions of the area, the surface waters of the province are located in the territory of the three major rivers of Iran (Karun, Zayandehrud and Dez).
Important dams and wetlands: Bidkan dam, Nal-e-Shakan dam, Choghakhor wetland, Sulaghan wetland, Karun (4) dam and ….
Karun (4) dam with a height of 230 meters is the tallest two-arched concrete dam in the country, which saves 2.2 billion cubic meters of water.
The water stored in wetlands and dams in addition to agricultural and power generation and flood control, has also provided the tourist attraction to the province due to its beautiful prospects.
Major rivers of the province: Zayandehrood, Karoon, Dez Jahangin, Beheshtakad, Water Koohrang, Vanak, Bazoft, Five Khorasan and ….
Vegetation: Rain and altitude changes have caused the formation of vegetation in this province. In the western regions of the province, there are good pastures and oak massive forests. On the east side, the density of oak forests has decreased and gradually there are more types of plant cover and weaker meadows.
Forests of the province: forests are about 335,000 hectares and equivalent to 20 percent of the province's land area and 2.5 percent of the country's forests.
About 19 forest communities with 63 species of trees and shrubs have been identified in these forests. The oak is the most important species of the west, along with other species such as bone, aras, elm, almond, armandia, maple, Hawthorn, Haddahan, Plakhor, Asparagus and ... in the province.
Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province due to its location in the central zone of the Zagros Mountains is located in the territory of the mountain ecosystem, with its favorable natural conditions of rich and rare species of wildlife. Most mountainous and the forest of this province has been the source of wild animals for the past.
Among the most important environmental areas of the province, we can mention wetlands, rivers, springs and forests, pastures and pastures.
Based on the latest divisions of the country, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province has 10 cities, 25 divisions, 50 villages, 40 towns and 820 villages.
The cities of the province are:
1- Shahrekord 2- Boroujen 3- Farsan
4- Ardal 5- Lordegan 6- Koohrang
7- Kiar 8- Ben 9-Saman 10- Khanmirza
- There are three types of lifestyle in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province: nomadic, rural and urban
- According to the census of 1395, 64.1% of the province's population lives in urban areas and 35.1% in rural areas, and the rest are nomads.
- The most important tribes of the province: Bakhtiari, Qashqai, Jarghouyeh and Boyer Ahmad Sahli
- Tribal Housing is a black tent (Siah Chador) that is woven from goat's hair.
- The largest tribe of the province is Bakhtiari. The Bakhtiari tribe is divided into two of the Haft-Lang and Char-Lang. This division has taken place in Safavid times and for the reason of making tax collection easier.
- The basis of productive activities among tribes is animal husbandry.
- In terms of the number of livestock in the Bakhtiari tribes, it has the first place among all tribes in the country.
- In addition to livestock, nomads carry on other economic activities, including handicrafts. Some tribal handicrafts are carpets, carpets, Zilu, Jajim, Plus (tent), Korgin, Shevchay and Nakhodan.
- The income sources of the villagers in the province: Agriculture and livestock.
The most important cities of the province are agriculture and services. Although there are some other roles in cities. For example, Shahr-e-Kord has a university role in addition to the above roles. Saman and Chelgerd, have a role in tourism and Saman and Taqanak have a role in roads and transportation.
Areas of Investment in Infrastructure of the Cities of the province:
- Establishing or completing safety installation,
- public utilities,
- Open wide asphalt pavement axes through rural-traditional towns,
- Entry of new building materials for housing,
- Mass building Construction,
- Separation of gardens and farms,
- Large investments in infrastructure of cities, especially water and wastewater, telecommunications and road network,
- Market development and business,
- and ...
Their initial emphasis on crop production, are first to cope with the basic needs of life, such as wheat, rice and legumes, and in the next stage, attention to those products Crops that play a role in livestock farming, such as clover, alfalfa and barley.
- Urbanization in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province has a lot of history.
- First city of the province: Shahrekord in 1310
According to the Population and Housing Census of 2016, the population of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province was 947763, which holds 1.19% of the population of the country.
- The average annual growth rate of the province's population between 2011 and 2016 is equal to 1.15%.
- According to the census of 2016, the relative density of the population in the province is 58 people per square kilometer.
- The household size in 2011 was 3.86 and in 2009 it was 3.5.
- The urban population ratio of the province in 2011 was 58.2% and the rural population ratio was 41.8%, while in 2016 population ratio was 64.1% in urban areas and 35.9% in rural areas.
Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, despite its low size, has more relative density than the country. In 2016, the population density of the province was 58 people per square kilometer, while in the same census period, the relative density in the country was 3.3 inhabitants per square kilometer.
- Employment and unemployment: According to the census data of 2017, the active population of the province were mainly engaged in three sectors of industry, services and agriculture:
- The province's unemployment rate in 2017: 20.8% (second rank among provinces of the country)
- Economic Participation Rate (10 years and older) in 2017: 39.7%
• Women's Economic Participation Rate (10 years and older) in 2017: 15.3%
• Economic Participation Rate (People 10 and older) in 2016: 42.1%
• The Share of labor force employed in agriculture sector in 2017: 17.2%
• The share of labor force employed in the industrial sector in 2017: 39.1%
• The share of labor employed in the services sector in 2017: 43.7%
- The most important celebrations and festivities: 1) Nowruz Celebration 2) Sizdah (=13) Bedar (Sizdah Begard) 3) Religious Feasts
Race of the province's people: Before the migration of the Aryans to the central plateau of Iran, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari have many settlements. But evidence suggests that Persian speakers based in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari are mostly from Aryan immigrants who entered the area in the first millennium BC. Most historians believe the Bakhtiari’s people are original Iranian and believe that the Bakhtiarians are of Pars's race.
Language of the province's people: The language of the people of the Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari is from the Pahlavi Persian language and in the range of languages of India and Europe. The main dialects of the people of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province are:
- Lori language with Bakhtiari dialect
- Persian language with standard dialect
- Turkish language with Azeri root
- Turkish language with Qashqai root
Folk music of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province: Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province has rich folk music called "Moghum". This music consists systems and tiers, and number of sub-systems is up to 25, that traditional Iranian music has inspired so much from them. In the music of this region, concepts of hope, affection, love, valiance and courage are clearly seen.
Local clothing of the province: Bakhtiari’s people clothing are different from the people of Chahar-Mahal. The clothing of the Chahar-Mahal is similar to the official clothing in Iran. But Chugha and Dabit Trousers are the most prominent local costumes of the Bakhtiari.
- Arts and crafts
- Main crafts of the Province: 1) Weaving of Carpet 2)Weaving of Rug 3)Fendami
- Other handicrafts of the province: Wright or Wright weaving, Chugha weaving, Lock construction, Masonry, Embroidery, Khatam weaving, Jajim and Khersak weaving. Some political, scientific and cultural elites of the province
- Haj Ibrahim Khan Zargham Al-Saltanah: The leaders of the struggle for the constitutional system.
- Najaf Gholikhan Samsam al-Saltanah: Leaders of the struggle for the constitutional system and the prime minister of Iran.
- Haj Ali Gholi Khan, Sardar Asad (II): The leaders of the struggle for the constitutional system and the minister of war.
- Oman Samani: Iranian poet and mystic in the Qajar era.
- Hossein Pejman Bakhtiari: contemporary poet, writer, translator and researcher and professor of Tehran University.
- Mirza Habib Dastan Bani: Litterateur, poet, journalist, translator and great scholar and first author of Persian grammar.
Table (1): General Specifications of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari.